In-Text, Parenthetical or Author-Date Citations  

Your professor may request you use embedded, in-text (parenthetical or author-date) citations, with a list of references at the end of the paper. 

A citation is necessary when you use a direct quotation, statistic, or paraphrase an idea from published work immediately following the borrowed item. The format is the author's last name, the year of publication and the relevant page number(s), depending on what information precedes the reference in the text. 

Generally, there is no need to use the abbreviations "p." and "pp." before page numbers but page numbers should be included if available. 

If the author's name is in the text, it is omitted in the reference. If the reference is to a complete work, page numbers are not required. 

For example: 

According to Alan Cairns, "the electoral system has been an important factor in the evolution of the Canadian party system" (1968: 78). 
Alan C. Cairns's study of the impact of the electoral system on political parties (1968: 79) concludes… 
Electoral systems are not neutral (Cairns, 1968: 77). 

If a reference involves two authors, both names should be included. 

For example, 

" cannot deny that Canada's political parties are facing serious challenges to their presumed monopoly on the linkage function" (Tanguay and Gagnon, 1996: 3). 

If a reference has more than two authors, the first author's last name should be followed by "et al." 

For example, 

The effect of identification with governing parties on feelings of efficacy and trust has received attention (Lambert et al., 1986: 3). 

If there is more than one reference in the manuscript to the same author(s) and the same year of publication, insert a, b, c, and so forth following the year. 

For example, 

... (Lambert et al., 1986a: 56). ...(Lambert et al., 1986b: 57). 

When more than one source is to be included in a single citation, they are listed preferably in alphabetical order, separated by semi-colons. If the list is not exhaustive, but representative of the literature, the list of names and dates should be preceded by the phrase "for example." 

Though the number of scholars who have addressed the question is small, the evidence is compelling (for example, Irvine, 1974, 22; Irvine and Gold, 1980: 65; Johnston, 1985: 89; Meisel, 1967, 1975: 741). 

A brief phrase might be inserted within the parentheses, such as 

... (but see Lambert et al., 1986a: 56). 

The citation of an institution should precede the information itself. Also, references that lack an author's name require the name of the institution that sponsored the reference. For an example of each, 

Municipal data (City of St. Catharines, 1982: 2) indicate that property tax rates… 

References to court cases should contain sufficient information within the text to connect the reader with the item in the list of references at the end of the manuscript. 

For example, 

The Supreme Court of Canada has also rejected the limitations of a "political question" doctrine that would put executive decisions in foreign policy and defence matters largely beyond judicial review (Operation Dismantle v. The Queen, 1985: 4a). 

Of particular note is Justice Thurgood Marshall's argument against capital punishment (U.S. Supreme Court, Gregg v. Georgia, 1976: 76). 

References to sources on the Internet should approximate as much as possible conventional formats regarding printed sources, indicating when the site was last revised or when you last accessed the site. 

For example, 

The survey employed by the election study team of 2000 (Blais, André et al. ces.html, July 20, 2001) included these questions. 

When a quotation is estimated to run five or more typeset lines (40 words or more) it should be offset from the text (indent about 1/2 inch (1.3 cm)), be single-spaced, and end with a bibliographic reference following the period. No quotation marks! 

Integration theory has focused on describing and explaining integration processes and the role of supra-national actors such as the Commission and the European Parliament. On the other hand, the role of the policies, interests and actions of its most important actors, the nation-states, has been neglected by theory; existing efforts are mainly empirical and a-theoretical, concentrating on national peculiarities rather than on establishing a theory of national integration policy. (Petersen, 1998: 47) 

Tables and Figures 

Tables and figures should be within the body of your paper. However, if the table or figure is too large, it may be indicated within the body of the work following the paragraph that first mentions it, with "Insert Table 1 (or Figure 1) about here." 


Political Science Department

4th Floor Mulroney Hall
2333 Notre Dame Avenue
Antigonish NS B2G 2W5